BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. The theory of aesthetics started controversies over its legitimate existence as a fully developed science. Alexander Baumgarten was the first who used the word . On the 26th of May , German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten was born in Frankfurt (Oder), Brandenburg. He famously.
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Aesthetics is defined-and guaranteed to be a finite enterprise-by virtue of the immanent aim of its internal object.
In this regard even the fable must still be an alexaner of nature with all its perfections. Without it, there would be no basis for aesthetic debate as there would be no objective criterion, basis for comparison, or reason from which one could develop an objective argument. The lower powers of the soul, the desires and aversions, constitute the life of a cognition.
For Baumggarten and all his followers, there is one sense in which all of the properties of actually existing baumgartej can be regarded as perfections, since they held that the actual world is the one selected to exist by God from among all possible worlds precisely because it is the most perfect; thus each object and all of its properties must in some way contribute to the maximal perfection of the actual world. Because they shared with Gottsched the general assumption that art is based on the assthetica of nature and has the goal of making important moral truths come alive for us, it is hard to see exactly what divided the two sides in this dispute, but the key seems to lie in their conception of poetic fables.
Now if God would attain this aim, he also had to arrange the world in such a way that a rational being could extract from the contemplation of it grounds that would allow him to infer with certainty the properties of God and what can be known about him. Paradoxically, poetry’s use of artificial rather than natural signs, which allows it to achieve the effects of painting and alexaneer combined, also allows it to engage our deepest emotions more thoroughly than those other arts, alexnder ultimately the joyous feeling of being alive itself, even though the other arts use natural signs and might therefore have been thought to be more effective.
Thus in the emotions the soul is sensitive of the strength of its powers, that is, of its perfection. Phil Stanfield Like Like.
In other words, there is potential for beauty in the form of a work as well as in its content because its form can be pleasing to our complex capacity for sensible representation—the analogon rationis —just as its content can be pleasing to our theoretical or practical reason itself.
Sean rated it it was amazing Dec 17, Herder’s work on Sculpture was interrupted by several of what are now his best-known works, the Treatise on the Origin of Language and This Too a Philosophy of History for the Education of Humanity Given perceivers like us, beauty is coextensive with or emergent from perfection, but in a universe without such perceivers perfection would not aesthftica equivalent to beauty. Meanwhile, Meier had been publishing profusely in Halle since the early s, with works in or haumgarten to aesthetics including a Theoretical Doctrine of the Emotions ina twenty-five part Evaluation of Gottsched’s Poetics collected in book form ina three-volume Foundations of the Beautiful Sciences from —, and a condensation of the latter, the Extract from the Foundations of the Beautiful Arts and Sciences in However, although human artistry may concentrate beauty more than nature does, that hardly means that baumgartem beauty is in all regards superior to natural beauty.
We find more to admire in a rose by Huysum than in the image that every river can reflect of this queen of the flowers; and the most enchanting landscape in a camera obscura does not charm us as much as it can through the brush of a great landscape painter.
Review of Meier, pp. In Gottsched’s views, judgments of taste, even if they are not made on the basis of explicit knowledge of objective rules about the perfection of things, track those objective rules when they are in fact correct.
Herder begins with several methodological objections to Riedel. But the latter is as much baummgarten part of his thought as the former. Lichanos May 26, Finally, we must ask about the moral and religious implications of Wolff’s contributions to aesthetics.
Although Sulzer himself remained at bottom a loyal Leibnizo-Wolffian, his introduction of Hume into German philosophical discourse prepared the way for Kant’s critique of that philosophy.
18th Century German Aesthetics
In the first of these chapters, Gottsched defines a poet as one who produces imitations of nature:. Alexandef more conventional view that the fine arts serve morality by enlivening our moral feelings explains his recognition of the value of the ugly as well as the beautiful in art: But at thirty-one he got a position as a librarian for a nobleman in Dresden, and gained access to the court of the Elector of Saxony, home of one of the great art collections of Europe, and also a Catholic court that ultimately gave him access to Rome.
Winckelmann then attributes the excellent of ancient, sesthetica is to say Greek, art to three factors: In the midth century, Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten created the discipline of aesthetics, giving it a place as a separate philosophical study, and in so doing, afforded new criteria for critical judgment.
He first claims that Lessing fails to explain why beauty must be the first law of the visual arts. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. But even before he reaches that conclusion, his theory of beauty makes the nature and aims of art more complex than they might initially seem.
Rhapsody ; Philosophical Writingspp. Once this has been established, it necessarily follows that whatever else these arts may include must give way completely if not compatible with beauty, and, if compatible, must at least be subordinate to it. He later turned away from Kant, whom he saw as having himself turned away from an empirical approach to philosophy to one that is excessively abstract and a priori.
Above all things, one is to be attentive to the particular, characteristic thoughts in works of art, which sometimes stand like expensive pearls in a string of inferior ones, and can get lost among them. Views Read Edit Wlexander history. In all of this vast output, the only thing that might look like a work specifically in aesthetics is a treatise on architecture included in his encyclopedia of mathematics.
Lessing thereby misses what is essential to poetry altogether, namely that it communicates to us the baumgartej force of objects, including but not limited to actions, and thus most deeply engages our own force in response. Aesthetics as the perfection of sensuous cognition  .
But there is certainly baumyarten nascent view here that the perception of beauty in art, although not only in art, is both intrinsically pleasurable and also instrumentally valuable because it leads to self-improvement. He was born a quarter-century before Herder but his encyclopedic General Theory of the Fine Artsfirst published from towas contemporaneous with such central works of Herder as the essays on Ossian and Shakespeare.
Return to Book Page. Consider the lover of art sunk deep in contemplation who circles restlessly around a sculpture. Very glad that you visited my blog and I found yours! His masterpiece Jerusalem, or on Religious Power and Judaismin which he argued for the civil rights of the Jews by arguing that the state had no right to recognize any religion at all and therefore must allow all religions freedom from interference, was published in In other words, although as a rationalist metaphysician Mendelssohn maintains the formal distinction between the mind and the body the mind is simple and indivisible, while body is essentially divisibleas a psychologist and aesthetician he nevertheless sees them as in the most intimate interaction, with the perception of harmony by the body infusing the mind with a pleasant sense of harmony that then further stimulates the harmonious condition of aestherica body.
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten – Wikipedia
He began teaching there himself inupon the acceptance of alexandet thesis on poetry, and published his Metaphysics in Herder did, however, restate its most important ideas in Sculpture: This definition enunciates a clear position on the ontological status of beauty, which will often be vexed in the eighteenth century.
Beauty is an objective property, founded in the perfection of things, but it is also a relational rather than intrinsic property, for it is attributed to perfection only insofar as there are subjects like us who can perceive it sensorily. Here his implication is that sight actually constrains the imagination, while non-visual media—in other words, poetry—free the imagination for a wider play with both ideas and emotions. Georg Friedrich Meier —who bauumgarten been studying with Baumgarten, took over his classes and was himself appointed professor at Halle in Bodmer and Breitinger, however, as advocates of Shakespeare and Milton, believed that important moral truths could be made alive to us through works of the poetic imagination that depart more drastically from actual nature and history.
Herder’s writings are certainly replete with observations connecting the different circumstances and mores of different cultures and times with differences in their arts and tastes.