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The second aim was discern what is forbidden: What they forbid cannot be inferred. Contemporary oaths maintaining the commitment tend to include phrases regarding active euthanasia and assisted suicide. Other contemporary oaths may generalize it.
Many physicians have considered the commitment of juramemto Hippocratic Oath in reference to the administration of harmful drugs as the prohibition of euthanasia 12.
However, its true original meaning is not yet clear. Authors like Jones translated this commitment as:. I will not give poison to anyone though asked to hipocratuco so, nor will I suggest such a plan 3: I will not give a drug that is deadly to anyone if asked for it 6: We must note, however, that according to definitions, a poisonous drug is not necessarily deadly.
It depends on the dosage. There are different interpretations about what juramfnto prohibition of administering poisonous or deadly drugs in the Hippocratic Oath actually means. Some authors understand it as referred to assisted suicide.
Others think it’s related to euthanasia and a few assert that is not committing murder. The second aim was, when possible, discern what is forbidden: The intention of this study was not by any means to analyze current bioethical positions regarding euthanasia, neither to provide a new translation or interpretation of the Hippocratic Oath.
The Hippocratic Oath and its discussion by scholars is merely mentioned to introduce the topic to the reader and provide a needed theoretical framework for analyzing subsequent oaths.
The oaths were selected from different sources: In Table 1 the names of the oaths, historical periods when they were written and religion if applies can be found Table 1. The relation to the Hippocratic Oath would be represented by the name of the oath when it includes the word Hippocratic or because the authors recognized having based their oaths on the Hippocratic Oath.
The different texts were grouped according to the time period in which they were written: For the analysis, they were divided into those that express the commitment the same or similarly to the Hippocratic Oath.
Aspectos Básicos Juramento Hipocrático Essay – Words – BrightKite
With the aim of pointing out this commitment, we examined when it was referenced in each oath. The goal of this task was to determine similarities and differences between themselves and with the Hippocratic Oath. Primarily, the work was done individually. In the second instance, all authors worked together and reached a consensus in the expressions where they had previously disagreed.
He asserts that the Platonists, the Cynics and the Stoics allowed the suicide of the ill and that even some philosophers considered this act as the major triumph of man above destiny. According to his view, only Pythagoreans condemned suicide for considering it a sin against God: This is one of the reasons why Edelstein considers the Hippocratic Oath to belong to this group 4: Authors like Prioreschi, for example, contradicts him, mentioning other schools that also condemned suicide: Academics, Peripatetics and Epicureans 8.
For Edelstein it would make no sense that the commitment refers to poisoning, as many others assured, because there were already laws about it in those times that forbid it. There would be no reason to repeat them in the Oath 9. This author considers that the prohibition literally refers to not poisoning. He says that the physicians in Greco-Roman times who were skillful in healing were also skillful in killing and that Plato had already mentioned it in The Republic.
Also, ancient Greeks had no way to know through chemical analysis if somebody had died of poisoning, which would be another reason to include the prohibition in the Oath 9. According to Miles, the term suicide did not exist in Ancient Greece in the time that the Hippocratic Oath was supposedly written.
C and was used for the first time by Greek comedy writers. He asserts that in former times, the polis and its welfare were the most important things for a person.
People started to value private life and also their own deaths to a greater degree. Von Engelhardt however mentions that the term euthanasia was already in use and that Suetonius used it to describe Augustus conception of an ideal death He asserts that it is murder, since in Ancient Greece it was common that physicians, who knew about poisons, would participate in crimes for economic reasons 7.
However, other authors like Von Engelhardt affirm that the first person to use the term euthanasia similarly to the current interpretation was Francis Bacon, in a text from 1.
Aspectos Básicos Juramento Hipocrático Essay
Bacon referred to heroic deaths as inner euthanasia. Asking doctors to end the suffering of patients without hope was described as external euthanasia Out of the 17 oaths, 9 of them include explicitly the prohibition of not administering either poisonous or deadly drugs, making one of them reference to both Hebrew Paraphrase of the Hippocratic Oath.
All Medieval and Modern oaths and three Contemporary oaths analyzed fall into this category. Seven contemporary oaths contain expressions that could be interpreted by the reader as referring to euthanasia, juramnto suicide or murder. One oath does not contain any commitment regarding the subject nor that could be interpreted as such Oath of Hippocrates, University of Ottawa Table 1.
It must be noted that hpiocratico the Middle Ages, medicine was still influenced by Hippocratic and Galenic treatises In Medieval times, which were heavily influenced by religion, suicide was equal to murder, being an offense to God. Secular writings of this period condemned suicide. Also, societies tend to use the text that adapt best to their idiosyncrasies, thus the prevalence of the Hippocratic Oath. Veatch and Mason also assert that in contrast with Hippocratic medicine that did not offer lineages on how to behave with the dying, the Christian morals encouraged to accompany them, although not necessarily to do everything possible to preserve life There were even books in the Middle Ages like Ars Moriendi, that gave advice on how to die well according to Christian precepts.
“La prohibición de la eutanasia” y juramentos médicos de raíz hipocrática
The concept of transcendence is also introduced during these times For Christianity, death is transformation: Sometimes these oaths, vary the form of expression depending on the translation and in occasions it tends to be an interpretation. For example, the Hebrew Paraphrase of the Hippocratic Oath declares:. And he will analiss great care not to give instructions in the preparation of a potion causing death or injury, nor should he [become involved in a procedure] causing weakening to the patient if he feels [this to be distasteful], or if he is induced to do such an evil deed Even though this text is an oath of Hippocratic stemma, there is the possibility that it was written by a student in some school of medicine as notes, making reference mainly to the principle of non-maleficence.
This can hipocrafico why there are differences and additions compared to the original. We must note that this text points out something common in that time: This concept is also expressed in the Oath of Asaph, the first known Hebrew medical oath. Also, although during the Middle Ages death was supposed to be accepted, during the Renaissance, it begun to be conceived as the loss of the self, putting emphasis in funerary rites The latter uses the original version of the Hippocratic Oath almost entirely, possibly due to tradition, as many other universities around the globe.
It attempted to leave anachronisms aside. I will never give anyone a fatal drug if asked nor show ways to carry out such intentions D Restatement of the Oath of Hippocrates, endorsed by 35 interfaith ethicists, asserts:. I will neither prescribe nor administer a lethal dose of medicine to any patient, even if asked nor counsel any such thing nor perform act or omission with direct intent deliberately to end a human life These two oaths are clearly manifesting themselves against active euthanasia and assisted suicide.
In relation with the A. D Restatement of the Oath of Hippocrates, although the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide exist in secular societies, all major religions condemn them. According to James G. Anderson, traditional religious beliefs oppose euthanasia due to: The oaths with expressions that could imply not committing murder, not participating in assisted suicide or not performing euthanasia depending on the interpretation, are all contemporary.
The original and subsequent versions until expressed:. I will maintain the utmost respect for human life, from the time of its conception, even under threat; I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity 20 – 21 – I will maintain the utmost respect for human life I will not use my medical knowledge to violate human rights and civil liberties, even under threat Given that this declaration tried to be applied to the worldwide community despite their cultural and religious diversity, none of its versions would specifically refer to euthanasia.
This was probably because of the controversy of the topic.
Another reason could be due to the different beliefs and laws of the existent countries Even though the way in which this commitment is written could give place to various interpretations, the WMA declared in its unfavorable position to active euthanasia because they considered it unethical It is common that medical schools base their own oaths in the Declaration of Geneva. Some oaths from the Analisus States make reference to criminality. It is also debatable if these oaths would be referring to euthanasia, to assisted suicide, to murder of a person who has juramentto been bornor to abortion.
Since in the early analisie th century this last one was mentioned in literature as a criminal operation United States or an illegal operation United Kingdom Hlpocratico reference to crime may be traced back to an oath with no Hippocratic origin nor jurammento orientation: But that has been very influential throughout history. Another contemporary oath with a similar concept but a slight variation is the Version of the Hippocratic Oath of the School of Medicine, John Hopkins University, which affirms:.
I will honor the wishes and needs of the patient, recognizing that death is not always an enemy. I will do no harm This oath could be interpreted as somehow supporting passive euthanasia.
Possible limitations of this study are the small number of oaths utilized.
Also, there might be medical oaths of Hippocratic stemma but not stated by the authors or not mentioned in the title. Therefore due to this fact they were excluded, making hipocratlco sample less representative.
However, it is not possible to infer if it refers to euthanasia, assisted suicide or murder. The ethically trained physician: Canadian Medical Association Journal ; 6: